Hope you are doing well and sorry for the trouble. As described the side menu bar is missing and the application crash when you try to open the preferences
What is the version of the Adobe Acrobat DC you are using? To check the version go to Help > About Acrobat and make sure you have the latest version installed. Go to Help > Check for Updates and reboot the computer once.
If it still doesn't work, please try to repair the installation (Win Only) go to Help > Repair Installation