I have followed the instructions provided from the error message:
Internet is fine.
Connection is fine, not low bandwidth.
Stopped system clock from syncing with internet time.
Firewall is off.
Trend scanner has had exceptions entered into it, and even completely uninstalled and restarted the server, error persists.
Acrobat DC has been reinstalled, error persists.
Host file has no mention of Adobe.
I have downloaded and ran the protected mode off registry entry, error persists.
Basically where I'm at, is if it's not my Trend virus scanner (since it was uninstalled and the error persisted) and it's not my firewall (the firewall is off, I have also made an exception for the Acrobat program regardless), then I'm not sure what it could possibly be.
The server is through Azure, so perhaps there is some I/O connection setting in the server settings on that end? I have spoken with Adobe support and they basically ran all the above tests again to no avail and told me they'd get one of their experts to call me, but I have not heard back for the last 2 days.