Nope, sorry. There are no sublayers or layer folders in Acrobat. I don't think that's a limitation of Acrobat, though, it seems to be related to the PDF file format.
The only exception to this is when you have an Illustrator file with sib-layers, and it's saved as a PDF. Then there is the option to save Top Level layers as Acrobat layers. But when you open the PDF again in Illustrator, the sub layers are still there.
However, I have never seen layer folders in any program before, not just Acrobat.
I responded to this in another post but I'll repeat here. This layer organization is controlled from the source application. For example Adobe InDesign or Adobe Illustrator (I think AutoCad?) can produce a PDF with this layer structure but it can't be done in Acrobat after the PDF is generated.