It would be VERY odd for a file to react to Times New Roman. Most people use that font from their own operating system, rather than from Adobe Fonts. In fact, TNR isn't even IN Adobe Fonts.
Have you checked your installation of TNR? Where it is in your Operating System? Maybe try logging out of the Creative Cloud app, temporarily, and test that file with no connection to Adobe Fonts, to ensure whether it's in your system, or related in some way to Adobe activation?
Another possible issue is that TNR is a REALLY old font. I mean, it may have been in your OS for a LONG time, and may be a very old version of the font. It looks like Illustrator is replacing it with something else. I'd suggest going into your OS and looking at the font itself, in your fonts folder. I can tell you that MY version is dated 2018. Please ensure your font's been updated. OR, if this is a realy old file, please update it to using your newer version of TNR, if you have it.
Thanks for reaching out. In addition to good information shared above, I'd request checking out this help article as well to know more about fonts & troubleshooting.
Hope it helps.