This really is a big problem and after lots of googling it seems no-one has a good solution. The huge list of ugly system fonts and unwanted language fonts that fill the font selection lists in Adobe Applications slow down the design process and is frustrating.
The best workaround I have found is to use the favourite (star) feature in Adobe programs so that the fonts you actually want come to the top of the list and the tons of other system and foreign language fonts are still listed but at the bottom. The problem with this is that you have to keep favouriting new fonts and there is still that nagging annoyance of loads of fonts showing up that are of no use.
With Apple's new OS versions you can't delete or even disable foreign language fonts now, so you are stuck having to scroll through them in all the Adobe applications. It is such a frustration for designers across the board and I think Adobe and Apple desperately need to sort this out. Apple should have a feature to turn off fonts from languages you don't use, so they don't clutter up all the software and Adobe could also help by adding a filtering option or preference to hide the unwanted system fonts, or fonts in languages that are not needed.
Another solution would be if Adobe reognised the font collections feature of font book that could be a great way to handle this problem. By only displaying fonts in a certain collection within an Adobe program the designer could set up a collection in font book and just have those fonts visible in their favourite Adobe programs.
Other suggestions have been to use font managers like fontbase etc, but they don't seem to work to hide these language system fonts in Adobe either. If anyone has a better solution to hide language and system fonts that are not needed by the designer inside Adobe software I would love to hear it.