Thanks for providing the detailed description of the issue with the screenshot. As you mentioned that you brought this CC version from a retailer. Some of the retailers provide full font library and some only provide a basic library with 1000 fonts. So, in this case, you should be able to use only basic fonts which are available in your library.
In case you want to use the full font library, you would need to purchase a Creative Cloud subscription which will include the Creative Cloud services, such as Adobe Fonts. Would you mind checking this article regarding the subscription? System and subscription requirements for Adobe Fonts
Let me know if you need more assistance on this. We are happy to help you.