AE cannot re-create all of AI's blending tricks just with a conversion. That's a limitation you have to get used to. They are different programs, after all, and the lkong and short of it that you "over-designed" your artwork in AI and went to far ahead without considering what the implications might be once you move to AE. In your case however it should not be difficult to just duplicate a bunch of layers to use the star shape as a track matte on a black circle or solid. You may need more than one such construct, though. Same for your highlights and so on - duplicate layers and playing with AE's native layer blending modes will get you there.