Mapping a flat graphic to a surface within your footage requires motion tracking. Search on terms "Motion tracking" and "planar tracker". Depending on the footage, you may be able to do a 3D camera track. If any objects pass in front of the graphic you will need to Mask or Rotoscope that object.
Placing text, pictures or 3D objects into camera footage will simarly require 3D camera tracking, masking or rotoscoping, lighting and shadow creation.
These are quite advanced techniques, so I strongly recommend you begin with the basics of After Effects and work your way up to them.