Long and short: Nope. You have to actually duplicate the comp and change the settings. There is no such thing as node bypass/ render overrides/ render scripts/ pixel expressions as you would find them in Nuke, Flame, Fusion and whatever that can be used in this manner in AE.
I've coloured the layers that need screen blend. Then when I'm happy, I duplcate the Comp , hide them on one Comp and Solo on the other. It's surprisingly quick. It might become annoying after a 100 or so that I need to do, but I'm gaining a lot Comping them in Premiere rather than in AE with Collapse Transformations on as I did before.