Using Adobe Illustrator, I typed some text on a curved path, and then I selected the "skew" option for "text on a path" because I wanted the text to appear as if the text is on a surface. In the Adobe Animate program, I want this text to animate around the circumfrence of another object and look like I am seeing the back of the letters at times as it animates around this other object. Is this possible using Adobe Animate, or do I need to be using Adobe After Effects?
animate can do that.
It can be done in AnCC in terms of faking it as opposed to a true 3D animation. I've done something similar (if I understand your ask correctly) by having text rotate around a sphere (think Saturn rings) in perspective using masks. Here's my source file...