I had this problem on the same Windows 2008 server two years ago when installing a lockdown of 9.0.1. I had marked ODBC Server to install with CF10. ColdFusion 10 ODBC Server and Agent appear in the registry (HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\), but not in the Services and are not running.
The lockdown account has full control permissions to both. Also, the lockdown account has full control permissions for HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Macromedia\ColdFusion\CurrentVersion\Clients\. These remained after the CF9 uninstall a week ago.
Try installing it with the Admin account instead of the lockdown account. The lockdown account is not an admin and won't be able to create the service. Once you create it with admin account, change the service to run under your lockdown account. The same situation happens when you create new instances from ColdFusion admin. In our procedures we have steps to create the service manually for those.