I am having a similar problem. In my case, my render of a model that came from a STEP file lacks all detail in the render (i.e., the detail that is clearly visible when working in the Design view).
I've tried cranking up the lighting all the way, moving the lighting around, etc., but it always comes out as solid black.
FYI -- all my other projects originated from a SLDPRT 3D model or an IGES 3D model, and those always come out great as photo-realistic images with lots of clarity and detail. However, this one converted from a STEP 3D model has been very difficult.