The most likely cause is simply an inadequate or misconfigured graphics hardware, so update your drivers and check the relevant options in the AI prefs and all that. Everything else will require soem actual system info and other technical details.
Sorry to hear about the experience. 3D features can be resource intensive, however, I completely understand how frustrating crashes can be. We have documented a few suggestions that might help while working with 3D features on this page. If that doesn't help, I would request you to share the following details:
Are you facing this problem with a particular file?
Does it crash while clicking on a specific 3D feature like, Bevel Inflate etc. ?
Screenshot of the Task Manager/Activity Monitor.
Are you using any other apps alongside Illustrator?
Exact version of the OS and Illustrator
Crash Report for Illustraor While submitting the crash, report please use the same email address, with which you are signed in on this community. This will help us find the crash report and help accordingly.