Is there a way to add keywords or meta data tagging to each artboard in AI that would export with it?
I create a bunch of icons that I export for people to use in their own docs, and sometimes just the file naming isn't enough. ie, a checkmark could be checkmark, appoved, yes, etc. And then I guess th other side of the question is, if so, how do you use this data to be searchable? If I house a library of icons on something like a Google Drive or box.com or Teams, can the tags be searched?
Try and put them into the XMP-data with File > File info.
Having them assigned to single artboards is not possible. You could try writing them as text on the artboard. When you then save the AI file with "PDF compatibility", a PDF will be inside the AI file, which has the text. As far as I know, Google can see that text. I'm not sure if the online drives can as well.