Did you check if the drivers for your videocard need an update?
Does it also happen in GPU Preview (Ctrl E)?
I believe that is the integrated graphics processor. Do you have a stand-alone such as Nvidia or AMD card?
Also, just to confirm, Ton mentions GPU drivers, not your drive.
Sorry to hear about this experience. I hope the suggestions shared by Ton and David helped resolve the problem. If not, kindly try resetting Illustrator's preferences by following the steps shared in this article (https://helpx.adobe.com/illustrator/kb/troubleshoot-preference-issues.html) and sharing your observations.
Disclaimer: Please note that resetting preferences will remove all custom settings, and Illustrator will launch with the defaults. You may take a backup of these settings from the location mentioned in the article.
Looking forward to hearing from you.