To hide or show all panels, including the toolbar and Control panel, press Tab.
To hide or show all panels except the toolbar and Control panel, press Shift+Tab.
Tip: You can temporarily display hidden panels if Auto-Show Hidden Panels is selected in Interface preferences. It’s always on in Illustrator. Move the pointer to the edge of the application window (Windows®) or to the edge of the monitor (Mac OS®) and hover over the strip that appears.