It's absolutely possible that files go corrupt. I haven't seen that happen to my own files, but it happens. Where did you save the file?
Being unable to open files or to create new ones is often related to a missing printer. But usually in that case Illustrator crashes and doesn't show this kind of messages. But of course that is something you could investigate: set up a PDF printer if you don't have a physical one.
I suppose you already restarted the system? Reset the Illustrator preferences?