I have not been able to find a way to do this, but it would save me a lot of trouble if I could.
When I uncheck the "print" checkbox in the layer options, the layer is no longer visible when the pdf is opened in Acrobat.
For internal review at my company I post pdfs to OneDrive where various departments will approve or make comments to revise. As it stands I have to make 2 different files, a "preview" file that they can see the die lines, dimensions, notes, a cover layer to hide the bleeds, and other layers that should not be printed. I then make another file with those layers set not to print which I send to the printer. Too often I've had printers return proofs with die lines printed, also with callout layers stating "die line does not print" printed. Setting a layer not to print is the best way to ensure and to communicate that a layer should not print.
Once I've made the "Print" file for the printer with unprinted layers set not to print, I then have to maintain folders for both sets of files, make any revisions that happen after I've sent to the printer (this happens far too often) to both sets of files. It becomes a liability that the 2 versions might not match if some revision is overlooked on one or the other. The file that is being approved not being the file that is sent to the printer makes me liable for any discrepency.
If there is any way to accomplish this, so that I can use 1 file for the printer and for approvals in Acrobat — without having to load and change options seperately for each file in Acrobat — to be able to set this up in Illustrator, it would be extremely useful.