I see the difference in perceptible saturation, but I don't see how it's an Illustrator problem. Device displays all differ from eachother. Hardware and software controls that affect screen rendering are widely varied. Getting the displays of two different devices to look the same side-by-side may be on the fringe of possibility.
The color of the image after extracting as jpg is almost the same.
I also see a definite difference in hue.
Maybe your best bet is to choose the colours to appear as close as possible to desired as an average of the different target devices (with default/normal settings), at least those you can view them on, so all appearances are preferably more or less equally good (or bad).