Additionally, opening a previous .indd that was generated with the same master file, the image renders corrupted in InDesign, and exporting to PDF gives an error that files/URLs are not accessible. There's only one linked file, and it's clearly accessible because I can right click it in Links, and click Reveal In Finder, and Finder jumps straight to the image. It's not a crazy image format either, same thing is happening with images from multiple cameras.
These errors are only since upgrading to an M1 Mac on Monterey, from a 2014 iMac on Big Sur. It appears image links are entirely borked, whether that's an InDesign version issue or M1 compatibility, I'm not sure.