Does the frame you're trying to put the image into already have an image in it? If you go to View>Extras>Show Frame Edges, you should see diagonal lines in an image frame if it's empty. If there is something in the frame, even if the content is moved outside of the bounds of the image frame, it will not show the diagonal lines. If your frame edges aren't showing, an empty frame and one with content pushed outside of the box will look the same.
If you do have content in the image frame, holding Option (Mac OS) or Alt (Windows) while clicking the loaded cursor into the frame will replace the content of the image frame with what ever is in the place cursor.