Yes, this can be done. As far as I know, the keywords can only be shown as a single line (separated with commas) so this may be unsuitable if that adds up to a lot of keywording text. If you don't want all keywords, then the particular text you do want could be put into the image Caption or whatever, and then that shown in the slideshow instead.
In the Slideshow module, on the Toolbar under the main screen (press T to show this as necessary) is a button "ABC". This allows you to place text onto the slide, including text that varies according to each image. Next to the ABC is a selector menu and a text entry box (which you would use if the text was to be the same on every slide).
The selector menu shows you a list of preset kinds of text, but that does not unfortunately include Keywords out of the box. So you can click on [Custom] and then in the dialog which opens, go and find Keywords (drop down one of the selectors in the IPTC Data section) and click Insert to put a token for this into the text definition box. You can empty anything else in that same box, so it looks like this:
then in the Preset menu at the top, you can save this setup as a named text definition if you like. In this screenshot I had already done that and named it "Keywords".
The resulting text box can be scaled and positioned on the image, and the colour and transparency of the current selected text box (you can have several if you like) are adjusted in the right side panels.