"Can I recover my edits and snapshots, perhaps in Lightroom's temporary files?"
There are no "temporary files" other than catalog backups.
If you 'Removed' an image from the Catalog (deleting the edits & snapshots) then one way to restore the edits is from a backup of the catalog that does contain the edits.
You would Open the backup catalog, Select the one photo, Export AS A CATALOG (call it "Transfer"), then re-open your master catalog, and Import FROM ANOTHER CATALOG (that being the temporary "Transfer" catalog).
The method requires the original file to be the same name and in the same location as indexed in the Backup catalog.
RESTORE PARTIAL from backup catalog?
Regards. My System: Lr-Classic 12.3 Photoshop 24.3, ACR 15.3, Lightroom 6.3, Lr-iOS 8.0.8, Bridge 13.0.3, Windows-11.