I have the same problem and this doesn't work for me. Lightroom Classic CC is the only icon affected by this. Strangely, it also doesn't show up in my Start Menu, even after right-clicking the desktop shortcut and requesting that it be 'pinned to start'. All my recent catalogs are represented by white icons too and, according to the notification that appears when clicking to open them, "appear to be missing".
This has been a problem for me for the past 6 months at least.
Your problem looks more serious. Looks like a different problem.
Please post your own problem
When you do, list some additional info
Operating System version and build (Windows 10 v1909 build 18363?) (via Windows Settings/System/About) Or is this a MAC?
Lightroom Classic version, actual number (V9.3?)
Adobe Plan (Photography Plan?)
Amount of RAM
GPU driver version (looks like you have NVIDIA, so using the NVIDIA utility app called GeForce Experience, will provide that, check for an update while you are at that, and if an update exists, when installing select Custom for install type as to cause a clean install) hmm, but if a MAC?
One oddity that sticks out. In that screenshot I see an icon for Lightroom Classic, using the letters LrC, Ok, that is the current icon. BUT, why to the right is the text stating the app name Lightroom Classic CC. Should not have CC on it.
Just another Adobe customer; My Sys; APP: LRC 10.0, PS 22.0; CMP: WIN WS 16GB OS 10 v1909 (18363), mid 2015 MBPr 15” 16GB MACOS 10.15.7; 4K EXT DSPY; CAM: Canon 5D Mk III, Fuji X-T3