Did you read exactly?
Clicking onto one of these arrows on layout page, reveals a „Plus“ icon. Clicking onto this creates the breakpoint:
If you don’t have these arrows on the breakpoint bar on layout page, you have no breakpoints on master page.
Try copying the text container, a rectangle, an image, whatever you want and try again.
The „Paste and Create Breakpoints“ command won’t appear, if the master page breakpoints already exist on the layout page.
Perhaps there is a wrong settings somewhere.
I have a Masterpage, and if I make a layout page from the masterpage I get the layout as shown in the photo.
Yes, that is, how it works. For the third time:
Klick onto the triangles on your layout page, or copy an element from master to layout using „Paste and create breakpoints“.