This is a PSA for the portion of the Adobe Photoshop ecosystem that is using the latest Intel Macs and is experiencing Images that open in Photoshop that are black, but the thumbnails in both Photoshop and Bridge are showing the correct preview.
After spending some time with Adobe on this issue, I was instructed to reset the Photoshop Preferences using the button that says reset preferences on close. Then I turned on the Use Graphics Processor button I had turned off to get the images to display properly and restarted Photoshop. Thankfully this solved the problem and Photoshop has worked ever since without any issue.
So I hope this helps those who have seen the same problem and corrects it for them as well.