Just to get it out of the way first:
- does the image have an embedded color profile? Which one? When you store patches, they are only stored as numbers. But those numbers will produce different colors according to the color space (profile) used.
- is your diplay profiled with a colorimeter (using a calibrator), or are you just using the system default display profile? What you see on screen is the result of two profiles: the document profile, and the monitor profile. If both are present and correct, colors display accurately. If one profile is wrong/incorrect/defective, you get a color shift and unpredictable color, and this can sometimes affect applications differently.
That said, this looks more like an error in the conversion between those two profiles. And that conversion is performed in the GPU nowadays (used to be the CPU). In other words - a GPU bug. Here's a smoking gun:
Not much you can do about GPU bugs on Mac, except wait for an OS update. In the meantime, you can see if "deactivate native canvas" in PS Preferences helps. That's not a fix, but it may be a temporary workaround until a fix comes.