Is this happening when you right click on your Photoshop document or just the area surrounding your document?
Before you reinstall Photoshop, try resetting the Preferences. They can be found in the Photoshop menu on a Mac and the Edit menu on Windows. Within the General tab is the button Reset Preferences On Quit.
That menu should only appear when clicking outside of the canvas, so be sure to click inside the canvas. But here's what happened to me;
First off are you using multiple artboards? if yes there's a chance that the canvas you were right-clicking on wasn't an Artboard like the others. Try selecting the Brush tool first and Right-click on all the artboards (example: artboards A and B), if the usual brush menu pops up on another artboard (ex: artboard B) the current artboard you failed to click on (ex: artboard A) wasn't actually an artboard.
Here as you can see because there isn't any text on top of that canvas that has an "A" on it, i think photoshop treats it as a Background. So the A canvas is just a "floating" canvas, without an artboard attached.
So what i did was just use the "Artboard Tool" and made an artboard on the canvas that doesn't have text specifying that it's an artboard. In my case it's the A canvas. And as you can see it finally says "Artboard 2" on top
Even if you aren't using an artboard to begin with maybe this trick will solve it too. I hope this works for others that are facing the same problem.