The Linux subsystem itself is an isolated VM, so unless you do some hefty configuration stuff (which then of course decreases security) the answer very, very likely is no. Anyway, you will get better answers on this on a Linux or MS Server centric forum where people may actually may have tried such stuff. This is "too far out" for a mundane user forum.
Photoshop-python-API is not an Adobe product, for good advice you should contact the author. However, a quick glance suggests it is designed to work on the same machine as a licensed copy of Photoshop, and that it uses COM - a Windows feature. So you need to run it on your Windows computer, and have an active subscription to Photoshop.