I tried all permutations of Edit --> Preferences --> Interface --> "UI font size" and "Scale UI to Font". After restarting the app there is absolutely no change in the UI font. They are too tiny to read.
I appreciate the response, but after further experimenting with the options I still don't see any meaningful difference. As I said, other apps I use, including other Adobe apps such as Lightroom, scale more noticeably with Windows settings. Photoshop shows no noticeable changes until I scale Windows to 200% or 250%. Then all my other apps are so out of proportion as to be unusable. I have tried all the permutations of "UI Scaling", "UI Font Size" and "Scale UI to Font" followed by restarting the app. The UI scaling in Photoshop simply does not work as I expect. Perhaps it works as designed, but I can't find any comfortable viewing scale where Photoshop matches all my other desktop functions.