As you can see in the picture, the colors in Camera Raw filter and the image I am editing do not match. From "edit->preferences->camera raw" whatever I select does not change the colors in the image that opens when I click on Camera Raw Filter. In the previously mentioned selection there are also more options than in the preferences that are in the Camera Raw Filter window (see images). Thank you in advance!
Yes, I am trying to edit the colors by using the color mixer feature. We do that in order to make small corrections in the colors, but we can't do it because of the great difference it has from the original.
Differences of colour in the Camera Raw window and Photoshop are classically down to a faulty monitor profile in the operating system.
As a troubleshooting step, in Windows search box type "Color management" and change the default monitor profile to sRGB (or Adobe RGB if you have a wide gamut monitor). Then restart Photoshop. If that resolves teh problem then you need to create a good profile for your monitor, using a hardware calibration device such as the Xrite i1Display or similar.
The differences between the available preferences in the Camera Raw filter and in Camera Raw are normal. The filter is not camera raw and does not handle raw conversions.