I'm not experienced at all, but edited a jpg in PSE 15, saved it, and when I view the saved jpg in the Windows 10 Photos application, it definitely does not show the sharpening that I applied and saved in PSE 15 (that does show on screen in PSE). I had also made some small changes to overall brightness and contrast, and I'm less sure but those may not be showing in Photos either. Other changes, such as burn, straighten, crop, do show. See the screenshot...Photos version to the left, PSE to the right, the difference in sharpening is pretty evident on the blueish tree trunk lights, and the mural.
I did not I believe have layers in the file...at no point did I actively create a layer, and when I saved as sRGB (preparing to upload to Costco), the layers box is grayed out.