You have a defective monitor profile, probably delivered by a Windows update, which is known to install low quality profiles from monitor manufacturers. These profiles are often defective out of the box.
Photoshop and other color managed applications use the monitor profile to be able to display correct colors.
The colors are converted from the document profile to the monitor profile.
Applications like the Photos app are not color managed, and are unaffected by a bad profile.
To fix the problem, set the monitor profile to sRGB (use Adobe RGB if you have a wide gamut monitor).
This may not be entirely accurate, so for best results you should calibrate the monitor with a hardware calibrator.
This will also create and install a custom monitor profile, that describes your monitor accurately.
With Photoshop closed, press the Windows key + R, type colorcpl in the box and press Enter.