What profile descriptions? With the ColorSync utility on Mac, you can get some such data depending on what you are after.
You cannot soft proof or do anything without the profile itself. IOW, a file name doesn't get you anything but the file name. Note that ICC profiles have TWO names; the internal name we see from software and the 'external' name in Finder. The two should be in sync but are not always.
With "description" I mean the "desc" tag in the ICC profile which I think you referred to as the internal name of the profile.
The issue is that PS wants the internal name/description for setting up the soft-proof from inside a CEP extension. PS has some way to get the description as it is shown correctly in the dialog the user can select in the PS main menu - AFAIK that is not helpful when writing a CEP extension though as we can only see the file name on the disk which can (and sometimes does) differ from the description.