I've noticed the layers Color Dodge blend mode in Photoshop CC 2017.1 isn't working as it used to. For example in the graphic above, the white orb layer on the left is set to Color Dodge but appears the same as when set to Normal. It should look like the one on the right.
But when I use the white radial gradient tool (in Color Dodge mode) directly on the Background layer, it works fine! It also works fine in Illustrator.