You can't lock an anchor point, but if you are using the direct selection tool, instead of the selection tool, you can select all but the point that you don't want affected so in a sense locking it as you make your other manipulations. What are you trying to do?
I'm wondering if we could help you more if we knew more about what you'd like to achieve. For instance, you use multiple shape layers in a smart object. You can have multi-coloured vector objects that way as well. You could also lock one of the shape layers inside the Smart Object, and edit thge other(s). This sort of amounts to locking part of a shape.
If this an object you might want to use again, then dfrag it to a CC Library. That makes them instantly available, and sortable by context / client etc.
I love that you can view a library in a web browser, and sort by type. You can also share content keeping it as a vector object.