You can't. Lightroom doesn't support layers at all.
You can "open original" from Lightroom, which will keep the layers, but then all Lightroom adjustments will be gone. What Lightroom works with is the flattened composite that is embedded in the file when Photoshop is set to "maximize compatibility".
Personally I've always felt that this roundtripping is an invitation to chaos and confusion, and basically self defeating. But that's me.
You can "open original" from Lightroom, which will keep the layers, but then all Lightroom adjustments will be gone.
Partially true! Because after opening an "original" layered PSD or TIF (RGB) file from Lr-Classic (open 'as Original' to preserve the layers), - recent LrC edits made to the PSD or TIF are not visible in Ps, But, when the file is returned to LrC those last LrC adjustments are re-applied to the image.
But I do agree- "chaos & confusion" can be the experience! Better to make Ps the last step in the editing workflow, or the ACR 'Filter' as advised by @D Fosse