The correct procedure is to use the command Edit in Photoshop from Lightroom. Is that what you're doing?
If you view the image at 100% in both Lightroom and Photoshop, do you then see the edits?
Sharpening, noise, chromatic aberration and similar must be viewed and edited at 100% view, where one image pixel is represented by one screen pixel. Any other view will be inaccurate and misleading because the image has been scaled.
If you have a Retina/high resolution screen you may need to use 200% view.