You are editing in Floating windows not tabs. I also Edit in floating windows. Floating image windows are above Photoshop main window. You have some of your Photoshop panels docked to Photoshop's main window. So Floating image windows will be above docked panels like the tool bar, tool option bar and the palettes you have docked on the right. Pallets that are not docked will be above the floating image window.
When it comes to panels in front of the document window, things always work much better if you have Overscroll enabled in Preferences. I'm fairly sure it is turned off by default, which has never made sense to me as I can't think why anyone would want to work with it disabled.