Hopefully this works for you - my wife had the same error you're getting (on Windows 10) and making the following change in the NVIDIA Control Panel - not Photoshop Preferences - successfully resolved it. Previews were working fine before today, so we suspect that perhaps the NVIDIA driver automatically updated and reset the settings.
I'm on macOS but don't have Photoshop nor an NVIDIA gpu so I cannot confirm it works for Mac, but hopefully the below solution is transferrable to the appropriate System Preferences panel or such.
Open Control Panel > NVIDIA Control Panel
Select 3D Settings > Manage 3D Settings
You can specify the settings for all programs or a single program. In this case, I've chosen photoshop.exe
Switch the setting Enable Overlay to On
Apply the changes and restart Photoshop.
The preview pattern error should no longer appear and the previews should be visible.