We're sorry about the trouble with Photoshop. Would you mind telling us if this happens with all the files/images you open in Photoshop or just the one you have shared the screenshots of? If this happens with all the files/images, please try disabling the option to Use Graphics Processor from Photoshop by going to Preferences, then Performance. Once done, quit & relaunch Photoshop to check if that helps.
Most likely it's a defective monitor profile. If you don't have a calibrator, which is the proper way to deal with this, replace your current monitor profile with sRGB IEC61966-2.1 for now. It won't be entirely accurate, but better than a broken profile.
Relaunch Photoshop when done, it loads the profile at application startup: