Since you have re-installed all the apps after resetting the operating system, Photoshop should be running on default prefereces but if the issue persists, you can try to reset the preferences of Photoshop using the steps mentioned here: https://adobe.ly/2Qzc0K3
I have updated the driver (only minimally newer version). Even this did not solve this mysterious problem.
Any further hints?
Ah, I found the solution – quite simple (?!): probably the free disc space of my M.2 SSD as the only scratch "partition" (drive C) was too small. I added the second partition (drive D) of the M.2. Now it works.