Photoshop is not a video editor in the way that After Effects is. It is an image editor with some limited video functions added on.
If you made your spot edits on a separate layer and the spotted areas do not move across the entire video clip (e.g they are on a still background) then you can put that layer as a smart object above the video layer. However, even in those still areas, any noise or change in lighting will show the edits up immediately.
If there is movement then, if you must use Photoshop, you will need to convert the video to frames and spot every frame.
Dave has given you a good answer, and I doubt I can add to it, but I'll try and help with the steps you'll need. This assumes that the camera does not move — I don't think that even Premiere Pro can track an object that moves in the frame, but After Effects can.
What you need to do is add a patch in a new group, which being higher in the layer stack will cover the video layer beneath it. So Add a new video group by clicking on the drop down as below
Hold down the Alt (Opt) key and drage the clip in group 1 to group 2 which will place a copy of the clip
Zoom in as far as you can go (move slider to the BIG mountain) and move the time indicator forward one frame.
Use the scissors to cut the clip
It should now look like this
Select the second clip in video group 2, and delete it. Note you now have just the one clip the layers panel for group 2
You can modify the single frame in group 2, but it is still a video so if you extend it (drag it out) only the first frame will show the edit. So select group 2 (just the group) and merge it Ctrl E or (Cmd)
Note: You must have the time indicator to the left of the single frame in group 2 before merging it
Video group 2 is now a still image layer, and has become majenta in the timeline (indicating a still image)
You can now make your edit to the still image, and drag it out as far as you need.
But you'll need to hide the unedited area using a layer mask, and feather the mask in maskl properties
You could try and do this multiple times and dissolve the edited still image layers.
It would be crazy hard to try and animate to track a moving object but I think you should be able to animate and adjustment layer with time. That is to say make it have more, or less, effect as the track progresses.
The problem here is that the people most likely to help (the forum regulars) will mostly all be using other CC apps to edit video. I had to work out the above steps as I made this post for instance. So we are not going to have total knowledge when it comes to using Photoshop for video.