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Which version of Photoshop and OS?
Does this happen to all images that you try and open or just one or two that might be corrupted?
Try unticking Use Graphics Processor in Photoshop preferences under the Performance tab.
If that doesn't help try resetting the Photoshop preferences under the General tab in preferences.
Does turning off »Use Graphics Processor« in the Performance Preferences (Photoshop > Preferences > Performance > Graphic Processor Settings) and restarting Photoshop have any bearing on the issue?
Could you please post a screenshot taken at View > 100% with the pertinent Panels (Layers, Channels, Options Bar, …) visible?