Sorry, I accidentally attached the screenshots to my original post instead of inserting them. See below.
Fortunately for me but unfortunately for anyone experiencing this same issue and finding this post in the future, last night's CC update to PS v22.4.1 seems to have fixed the problem.
I only took screenshots of two examples, both of which were activated Adobe fonts. I'm having trouble remembering all the different fonts I tried but now that you mention it, I have a hunch they were all OTF and the unaffected were TTF. Could've had something to do with it.
Anyway, I appreciate your help but since I can no longer recreate the problem, we may have to chalk it up to a bizarre one-time glitch for now. Thanks!