Weird question, does Adobe show us where a customer's location or country is when they download your photo? Shutterstock shows the location of where your photo was downloaded which is pretty neat.
No the only information you get regarding the dowloads is the time (UTI) of the dowload, the type of plan the customer was on and your share of the transaction. I agree, more information could be helpful; but it isn't given.
Unfortunately not. You can search the internet for your photos. Most search engines offer the service of searching by image. Use the JPEG file that you uploaded.
No, the only way you'll ever find out what happened to one of your sold images is if the Buyer provides attribution when they use the image, which is rare. I have found a few of my images "in the wild" by just Googling my name and "adobe stock".