I also teach, and before every new class I reset the Preferences on every computer to ensure that every setup is identical until we start making changes. Go to Preferences > General > Reset Preferences on Quit, then quit and relaunch Photoshop.
In question #2, it sounds like some of them have the narrow toolbar selected. The controls will still be in the same place, but will look different. Look for an icon on their machine where you have the words. Resetting Preference, however, should take care of this as well.
Resetting all Tools will take care of the situation where the options for your Move tool (and other tools) is not the same as their options.
After you reset Preferences once, you should only need to reset all tools, the workspace, and the default colors as they are learning.
... View more