I am looking for something similar as the PhotoShop content aware extend feature, but for graphics.
I'm afraid there's no such thing in illustrator, but if you post samples of what you need to achieve you might receive better advice.
Yeah, it would help to understand what you are looking for by way of example as Carlos already mentioned. Extrapolating vector data is a completely different story than having an AI algorithm generate pixels...
Horizontal extension of typography-related vector labels and frames, such as:
(not zooming...horizontal content aware extension, or shrinking)
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It seems that content aware scale and fit works in both Illustrator and InDesign, for SVGs: