You would probably first have to create a compound path out of the separate paths, then select it and the object with the pattern fill, then make the clipping mask.
Is there a way to position the pattern on top of the outlines and insert it?
Does the way I described not work for you?
I think I'm confused on how to create the compound path, select it with the object fill and make a clipping mask. Is it possible to walk me through it step by step? My apologies but I'm very new to AI coming from Inkscape
You first select the paths, all those outlined shapes you created.
Object Compound path > Make
Then put that compound path into the desired place on top of your pattern. It's important that the compound path is on top.
Select the pattern and the compound path
Object > Clipping mask > Make
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Or compound path - and then choose Draw inside mode from Tool panel