Hi. ¿Do you have updated your software? Maybe reinstalling the application can solve that issue.
I checked this out, and I was able to confirm in Illustrator 2021 (v. 25.4.1) this list is blank.
Then, I looked around in the Application folder and found this file: /Applications/Adobe Illustrator 2021/Support Files/Resources/en_US/Adobe SVG Filters.svg
I was able to import that file, and then the SVG Filters window is populated with choices.
Thanks for your answer - as your solution did not exactly work on my PC (the path is far from being the same) - it did indeed inspire me to make my own investigation - where to look and what to look for. And I did manage to find and import an Adobe SVG filter library - so thanks once again.
My path: C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\Adobe\Adobe Illustrator 26 Settings\da_DK\x64\Adobe SVG-filtre.svg.